According to Psychological Record survey, 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarize written material.
There are at least seven types of plagiarism:
Direct plagiarismCommonness: 9.5Seriousness: 7.7
Direct plagiarism (or verbatim plagiarism). This is when someone copies the part of the text from another author and uses it in their paper without quotation marks and attribution. Direct plagiarism is a dishonest act that is quite simple to find out.
Global plagiarismCommonness: 5.0Seriousness: 9.6
Sometimes the whole article or even a book can be stolen from its writer and published under another name. This is what we call global plagiarism.
Mosaic plagiarismCommonness: 7.3Seriousness: 7.2
When students write their paper by finding the synonyms for the written by another author article, plus keeps the same meaning and structure of the original paper, this is "patchwriting", or mosaic plagiarism.
Self-plagiarismCommonness: 8.5Seriousness: 6.1
When a person includes in their new work some part of previous papers. For example, it happens when a student takes some parts of their term paper made in high school and include them in the college assignment.
Paraphrasing plagiarismCommonness: 7.7Seriousness: 8.1
It's the most common type when a student uses papers written by other authors, makes minor changes there, and represents it like it's their own document.
Accidental plagiarismCommonness: 4.0Seriousness: 5.0
According to this type of plagiarism, if a person accidentally forgot to cite the sources and make references, this could be defined as accidental plagiarism.
Incorrect citing or citing a non-existent sourceCommonness: 5.1Seriousness: 6.6
When you cite a source incorrectly, this also can lead to plagiarism because it looks like you represent other writer's sentences like your own phrases.
• Cite your sources to avoid plagiarism
This will help you cite all the sources you have used in your paper and avoid plagiarism. You can use MLA, APA, or Chicago style citations depending on your teacher's demands. Make sure you follow all the guidelines of the chosen style.
• Use a plagiarism checker to avoid plagiarism
You can find many online plagiarism checkers (free and paid) that will help you to find potential plagiarism. Thanks to checkers, you will be able to see plagiarized sentences and phrases. You should look at how much plagiarism the checker can find, and how much it costs to check the paper.
Plagiarism means stealing or theft but the concept doesn't exist legally. Both civil and criminal statutes do not mention the plagiarism. We should notice that copyright infringement and plagiarism are two different things.
Both these terms may look similar but when it comes to the law, the important aspect is the material copyright protection. It's understandable when someone uses the written text protected by copyright, the law defines it as a copyright infringement. Plagiarism is a moral offense that means stealing someone's ideas that were written even without copyright protection.
"Common knowledge" is well-known ideas or phrases that shouldn't be cited. For example:
- Donald Trump is the president of the USA.
- Water boils at 212०F.
You don't have to cite these phrases when using them in your writing because this is well-known information for everyone. By the way, if you include idioms into your text, there are no needs to cite them too.